Xanax was synthesized by researcher Patricia Chrem, the former Upjohn laboratories, which today are part of the Pfizer conglomerate. Owns the patent number 2,947,153 and was released from 1978.Al principle, the drug was indicated for cases of crisis in anxiety (panic attacks), but subsequently, the psychiatrist David Sheehan suggested that the drug was directed to anxiety disorders.
Xanax is a triazolobenzodiazepina, i.e., possesses a ring triazole joined its structure, and its effects are 12 times more powerful than the known diazepam but with a shorter elimination half-life.It is indicated in the treatment of anxiety (anxiety neurosis), panic disorder, anxiety symptoms of depression and anxiety crisis, and occasionally for the seizures.
Pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action
Xanax depresses the central nervous system, also joins the GABAA receptor which is responsible for mediating the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain on the Activator system reticular ascending blocking both cortical and limbic excitation. The GABAA receptor is composed of up to 5 subunits of 19 possible and with different combinations of subunits GABAA receptors possess different properties, also different locations in the brain, and most importantly, different activities in regards to the actions of benzodiazepines.
Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a depression of the central nervous system depending on the dose ranging from minimal alterations to the hypnosis.
Absorption: After a dose, the drug is quickly absorbed, reaching peaks in serum between 1 and 2 hours after oral administration, administered sublingually uptake and effects are presented in a time of 5 minutes approximately.
Distribution: It is distributed widely throughout the body. About 70-91% of the dose binds to plasma proteins.
Metabolism: Xanax is metabolized in the liver to be transformed in alpha-hidroxialprazolam and other inactive metabolites.
Elimination: The elimination Xanax half-life is from 9 to 14 hours. The urinary tract is the principal route of elimination and is excreted in the form of Alpha-hidroxialprazolam and metabolites without pharmacological activity.